Indirect calorimetry (ICA)
Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production can be measured from expired pulmonary air using our on-line gas analysis system (Metalyzer 3B, Cortex, Leipzig, Germany) and this data used to calculate total energy expenditure (TotalEnergy), and fat and carbohydrate metabolism (FatOxi and CarbOxi respectively). This can be utilized to assess the effects of nutrition on physical performance as well as nutrition and brain function.
Case study (Kennedy et al., 2016)
An investigation into the acute and chronic effects of multivitamin supplementation in adults with no known deficiencies revealed immediate (between 60-120 minutes after consumption) increases in energy expenditure and fat oxidation; the former maintained after 8 weeks of supplementation also. This study was one of the first to counter the myth that vitamins are unable to induce acute effects and the full reference is available in the vitamins section of our publications.